Built in the 4th century BC, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Bodrum, Turkey) was a tomb built for king Maussollos of Karia. Discovered in the north site of the site, the male (above) and female (below) statues were part of thirty six such figures which once stood between the Ionic columns of the peristyle of the Mausoleum. The male figure is thought likely to represent one of Maussollos’ Hekatomnid ancestors and is depicted wearing a himation (cloak) and a trochades sandal on his right foot.
The female figure is identified as Artemisia who was queen of Halicarnassus. Carved from Pentelic marble, the figure also wears a himation (cloak), high-soled sandals and a chiton (tunic). Both of the sculpted figures date to circa 350BC and are on display in the British Museum in London.
The ancient capital city of the Lycian Federation was Xanthos, now in modern day Turkey. The Nereid Monument was built for the Lycian ruler Erbinna with its name deriving from the sea nymph (Nereids) statues placed between the columns of the tomb. The reconstructed small Ionic temple dates to circa 400BC with the facade on display in the British Museum in London. A mixture of Greek and Lycian style and iconography, the monument features relief sculptures and friezes with a decorated architrave and pediment.
The medieval castle in Cesis dates back to the 13th century when the ancient hillfort was home to the Livonian Brothers of Sword. Constructed of dolostone, the castle suffered serious damage during the Livonian Wars. The castle was besieged by Russians in 1577 during which time the western part of the castle was blown up.
Surrounded by a moat on its south side, the castle was naturally protected by the steep slopes formed by the Gauja River valley. The fortifications have undergone a series of rebuilds and expansion over the course of its history with most of the surviving structure dating to the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
The rounded tower dates to the latter half of the 15th century. Three of five such towers survive today with the loss of a tower in both the north and south corners. The castle has been undergoing restoration since 1952.
A surviving corner tower of two stages adorned with hanging arches
Located on Museum Island is the Berliner Dom – Berlin Cathedral Church. The largest church in Berlin, the Dom we see today was completed in 1905 and was designed by the German architect Julius Karl Raschdorff.
The building features four corner towers and is both Baroque and Renaissance in its architectural style. Huge corinthian pilasters dominate the entrance facade (above left) and sculpted cherubs adorn the roof (above right).
The monumental pipe organ was built by the Prussian Wilhelm Carl Friedrich Sauer.
The Hozenzollern Crypt has tombs dating back to the 16th century. The crypt is the final resting place for several Kings of Prussia with over ninety sarcophagi and tombs of members of the house of Hohenzollern.
Furness Abbey was founded in 1127 by monks belonging to the Savigniac Order. The Savigniac Order was part of the great monastic reform movement which spread throughout Europe during the 12th century. Savigniac abbeys followed the Benedictine layout and were self contained complexes for self sufficient communities. The church at Furness had an open plan with side chapels accessed through arches within the presbytery walls. Excavations at Furness have revealed the 900 year old foundations of the Savigniac presbytery and confirm that the east end was apsidal, which was normal for Savigniac church architecture.
Constructed of red sandstone, the abbey became part of the Cistercian Order in 1147. The Cistercian Order was the monastic powerhouse of the Middle Ages and while both orders shared similar spiritual ideals, the Cistercians were more austere which led to major architectural differences. The Cistercians demolished most of the east end of the church including the transepts and presbytery rebuilding it in a much plainer style.
The church was rebuilt with Early Gothic style pointed arches and each of the transepts having three chapels. The church decoration was sparse in comparison with the richly decorative Savigniac architecture. The remains of the abbey include the east end and west tower of the church, cloister buildings and ornately decorated chapter house. Furness Abbey is Grade I Listed and a Scheduled Ancient Monument.
Located at the intersection of Via Martiri della Libertà and Via Indipendenza is the Loggia Dei Cavalieri – Lodge of the Knights. Constructed in the latter half of the 13th century, the loggia was built under Andrea da Perugia while he was major of Treviso. The loggia is built of brick with the arches constructed from Istria stone. The Romanesque loggia has five arches to three sides which are supported by undecorated columns.
The loggia was decorated with frescoes of which fragments still survive today.
Located in Piazza Matteotti is a cell tower named Opera Glass Mosaic. The cell tower supports transmitters and receivers for cellular networks. The vertical obelisk is the design of the Italian architect Roberto Pamio and was erected in 2007. The steel cell tower is covered with shatterproof glass panels with Murano glass mosaic tile inserts and is thirty meters tall.