Situated close to the Quaker Friends Meeting House at Brigflatts is the Quaker Burial Ground. Early Friends needed somewhere to bury their dead because the Anglican churchyards were closed to them. The first Friend to be buried here was Rebecca Langle in 1656 in what was then Richard Robinson’s Apple Orchard. Four more Friends were subsequently buried and in 1660, the land was purchased from Richard Robinson for the sum of 10s. This burial ground is likely to be the first piece of land purchased by the early Religious Society of Friends.
Since the 17th century, some 700 Friends have been buried here although there are less than 100 identified plots. The raising of headstones was only sanctioned by BYM (Britain Yearly Meeting) in 1850. In keeping with the Quaker Equality Testimony, headstones are of a uniform size and shape. In recent years, Friends have often favoured cremation and the burial ground is often used for the scattering of ashes. The Friends manage the burial ground in a way that encourages wild flowers so a mowing regime for spring and early summer flowers in one area, and late summer flowers in another, has been implemented.
In the chancel of St Andrews Church is a sculpted wall plaque dedicated to the memory of Edward Hasell of Dalemain. The plaque depicts a mourning woman beside an urn decorated with a coat of arms. Born in 1765, Edward was the son of Christopher Hasell and grandson of Edward Hasell (known as Blackcap) who died possessor of Dalemain in 1781. Aged sixty years old, Edward died on 24th December 1826 and the monument was erected by his surviving children who were united in describing their father as “one of the best and most affectionate parents.” The monument dates to 1830 and is the work of the 19th century British sculptor Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey. Having made his name in 1811 with a plaster model of a bust of the politician Horne Tooke, Chantrey was a well known sculptor of celebrated figures of Georgian England.
In the south chapel at Lanercost Priory is the tomb of Charles Howard, tenth Earl of Carlisle, and his wife Rhoda Ankaret. Born in 1867, Howard was a British soldier who served in the Second Boer War as a Captain. Following a military career, Howard served as a politician and was elected MP for Birmingham South in 1904. He held his seat in the House of Commons until 1911 when he entered the House of Lords having succeeded his father in the earldom. Howard died in 1912 aged just forty four and was laid to rest at Lanercost. The tomb was designed by the Scottish architect Sir Robert Lorimer and features the Dacre scallop shells and coat of arms. The inscription is taken from Proverbs 4:18 and reads “The path of the just is as the shining light that shineth more and more until the perfect day.”
In the chancel of St Andrews Church are two beautifully carved cross shafts. Carved on all four sides, the smaller of the two shafts (above) dates to the 9th century and was found in 1900 deep in clay near to the church. Although significantly damaged, the sharpest and best preserved carving depicts a winged lion with a serpents head. Discovered during restoration work in the 19th century, the larger of the shafts (below) dates to circa 10th century. The narrow set of panels are carved with figures and beasts with hunting scenes a common theme during the Viking period. The bottom panel depicts two figures beneath a large tree and is thought to represent the story of Adam and Eve. An antlered stag with a hound on its back is carved in the panel above. Symbolising the soul being pursued by the forces of evil, the hart and hound motif was an allegorical interpretation limited to Viking era carvings in northern Britain and the Isle of Man where themes from Norse legend occur. The top of the panel is believed to depict the biblical story of Abraham and Isaac.
In the south arcade of the presbytery is the elaborate canopied tomb of Lord Thomas and Lady Elizabeth Dacre. Born in 1467, Thomas was the son of Humphrey Dacre, 1st Baron Dacre of Gilsland. In 1487/1488, Thomas married Elizabeth Greystoke, 6th Baroness Greystoke and they had seven children. The carved decoration on the tomb would have been brightly painted but due to erosion this has been lost.
Thomas fought at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 against Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. The rival forces of Richard III were defeated and Richard himself was killed. His early support for the House of Tudor earned Thomas some favour with Henry VII who continued to trust his services for the remainder of his reign. Thomas was named deputy to the Lord Warden of the Marches in 1485 and eventually became Warden himself in 1509.
Henry VII named Thomas a Knight of the Bath in 1503. Swearing loyalty to Henry VIII in 1509, Thomas and his forces served under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, in the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. Thomas commanded the Border Lancers at the battle in which the invading army of James IV of Scotland was defeated. Henry VIII named Thomas Knight of the Garter in 1518 and he died on campaign in Scotland on 24th October 1525.
The two salmon are part of Lady Elizabeth Dacre’s heraldic devices
West end of the nave with bellcote
Located on Cautley Road in the Yorkshire Dales National Park stands the Church of St Mark. Built in 1847, the church is constructed of random rubble in the Decorated style. The church was designed by the English Gothic Revival architect William Butterfield and was one of his earliest commissions.
View along the nave to the chancel
The simple plan incorporates a nave with west bellcote, chancel, north vestry and a south porch. The chancel is slightly lower than the nave and features a large three light east window with ogival headed lights and geometrical tracery. The chancel also has a double chamfered arch with a Perpendicular style wooden screen.
Fine detailing from the pulpit
The walls of the interior are plastered with a panelled dado and plain panelled wooden pews grace the nave.
The Church of St Mark is Grade II Listed.
Located along Cautley Road in the Yorkshire Dales National Park sits Cautley Wesleyan Methodist Chapel. Dating to 1845, the building is constructed of coursed roughly squared sandstone rubble with quoins. The symmetrical single storey chapel features a round headed doorway with monolithic pilasters and keystone. The round headed windows have four pane glazing and fanlights and the building has an extension added to the north gable. The chapel is Grade II Listed.
In the side chapels at the east end of the priory church are several tombs of Lanercost’s patrons from the death of Randolf, the first Lord Dacre, in 1339 to the 20th century. The above monument commemorates Elizabeth Dacre Howard who died on 17th July 1883 aged only four months.
The exquisite life size terracotta effigy is the work of the renowned sculptor Sir Edgar Boehm. Born in Vienna, Boehm became a naturalized Briton in 1866 and was a favourite choice of Queen Victoria. Commissioning Boehm to produce numerous statuettes of her family, she appointed him Sculptor in Ordinary to the Queen in 1881.
Such monuments and memorials to children were extremely rare before the late 18th / early 19th centuries. The monument depicts the body above a chest tomb lying in repose with its head resting on a corner tasselled pillow.
The west gate of Birdoswald leads straight down the former main street of the Roman fort, the via principalis. The intervallum road ran around the inside of the fort walls and adjacent to the archaeological site stands a 17th century farmhouse. Now providing accommodation for visitors, the earliest section of the farmhouse (east of the porch) dates from the late 17th century. The central part, excluding the tower and porch, was built in the mid 18th century by Anthony and Margaret Bowman. The tower and porch were added in 1858 by the then owner Henry Norman, giving the building its current form. Constructed of coursed rubble masonry, the rendered building features a castellated gabled central porch and a two storey tower with battlements in the form of a tower house.
South west elevation
The 16th century was the age of the reivers, the border robbers and bandits who made cattle rustling and theft a major industry on both the Scottish and English sides. Special Border laws and customs evolved in the area to deal with the common feuds and troubles. By the late 16th century, the Birdoswald farms were tenanted by members of the local Tweedle clan and bastle houses, such as at Birdoswald, were typical of the type of defensive building constructed as protection from such attacks. Steps were taken to suppress the reivers after James I became king. In 1599, Birdoswald received its first known antiquarian visitor, Reginald Bainbrigg, a schoolmaster from Appleby. In 1603 landowner William Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle and known as Belted Will, commissioned a survey of the Barony of Gilsland which recorded the bastle house at Birdoswald.
By the mid 18th century, the tenant farmers of the Barony of Gilsland had become freeholders. Anthony and Margaret Bowman added the main part of the house in 1745, the year of the Jacobite Rebellion. During the 1840’s, the Birdoswald Estate was purchased by Henry Norman who developed a strong interest in the fort and its history. He was the first person to employ archaeologists to conduct excavations on site. Henry Norman added a tower and a porch to the farmhouse, giving it the appearance of an imposing medieval building as it was fashionable at the time. Norman loved the place so much that he named his son Oswald and in 1901, Oswald auctioned off the estate and sold his father’s collection of sculpture and inscriptions to Tullie House Museum in Carlisle. The farmhouse is Grade II Listed.
On display as part of an exhibition at Birdoswald Roman Fort is the above altar. Found in 1821, large numbers of inscriptions dating to the 3rd century AD have been discovered. The altar, which also dates to the 3rd century AD, is dedicated to Silvanus by the Venatores Bannienses (Deo Sancto silvano ue natores Banniess). Silvanus was the Roman god of woodland and uncultivated land and the altar contains the only inscription to show the fort’s Roman name Banna. Several inscriptions that date to this period refer to the new garrison which remained until the late 4th century AD – the cohors Aelia Dacorum milaria, an infantry regiment 1000 strong which had originally been raised in Dacia, modern Romania. The unit is recorded on a large number of altars dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter Best and Greatest) by a succession of commanding officers or tribunes. Almost certainly referring to this garrison, ue natores also corresponds with other late military titles and does not refer to actual hunting although hunters are attested amongst legionary troops. This specialist skill carried with it exemption from normal fatigue duties.