London: Nereid Monument


The ancient capital city of the Lycian Federation was Xanthos, now in modern day Turkey. The Nereid Monument was built for the Lycian ruler Erbinna with its name deriving from the sea nymph (Nereids) statues placed between the columns of the tomb. The reconstructed small Ionic temple dates to circa 400BC with the facade on display in the British Museum in London. A mixture of Greek and Lycian style and iconography, the monument features relief sculptures and friezes with a decorated architrave and pediment.

Berlin: Relief depicting a cult statue of Apollo


Miletus was an ancient Greek City near the west coast of modern day Turkey. The theatre of Miletus was originally built in the 4th century BC but was enlarged under the Roman Emperor Trajan during the 2nd century AD. On display in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin is a relief which depicts the Greco-Roman god Apollo standing between two torch bearers. The marble relief, which was originally on the rear facade of the theatre, is similar to that of the 6th century BC archaic cult statue by Kanochos of Sikyon.

Berlin: Pergamon Altar


The ancient Greek city of Pergamon sits along the coastline of Turkey and once dominated the entire region. The buildings and monuments of Pergamon were constructed of white marble in the Hellenistic style. The Pergamon Altar was built during the 2nd century BCE and is associated with the temple that was dedicated to the Greek god Zeus.


The altar was excavated by the German archaeologist and architect Carl Humann during the 19th century. The altar was rebuilt stone by stone in Berlin with the Pergamon Museum opening in 1930 displaying the Pergamon Altar as its centrepiece.


The altar has a huge sculptural frieze which depicts the Gigantomachy which in Greek mythology was a battle between the gods and giants.


Ionic columns support the roof of the altar.