Bassenthwaite: Mirehouse

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Surrounded by the breath taking scenery of Skiddaw, Ullock Pike, Grisedale Pike and Lake Bassenthwaite, Mirehouse occupies a perfect spot on the outskirts of Keswick. Planted in 1786, great Scots pine – the only species of native forest conifer in Britain – line the walk towards the house. The long walk along the drive takes you past the Bee Garden and Poetry Walk with stunning views of Ullock Pike and Dodd Fell. Although records indicate that there was people living at Mirehouse during the 16th century, the present house was built in 1666 by the 8th Earl of Derby. The only time Mirehouse has been sold was with the sale by the Earl to his agent Roger Gregg in 1688. The Gregg family and the Story family owned the house until Thomas Story left it to John Spedding of Armathwaite Hall in 1802.

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With more emphasis on convenience than grandeur, the house has been enlarged over time. The wings were added in 1790 for Thomas Story and the rear extensions were constructed in 1830 by the London architect Joseph Cantwell for John Spedding. In 1832 the south side of the house was demolished and new higher rooms were built. Further rooms were added in 1851 and a servants’ wing and chapel were completed in the 1880’s. The cross on the south side of the house (below) marks where the half timbered chapel once stood. Riddled with dry rot, it was demolished in the 1960’s. The two storey late Georgian house features seven bays between two canted bay windows with a porch of four Tuscan columns (above) and the building has painted roughcast walls. The lawns were terraced in the 1850’s and the Victorian colonnade (below) is the most formal aspect of the garden. The colonnade houses a display of the winning poems in the annual Mirehouse Poetry competition.

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The interior of the house is essentially a tribute to the Spedding Brothers, James and Tom, and their friends among the Romantics of the early 19th century. Although in many ways Mirehouse is a typical English Manor House, its charm lies in the poetic inspiration of its literary connections and its landscape. The front rooms are of a “cultured gentleman” (Jenkins, 2003) and contained within which is a collection of letters and works of Francis Bacon. Many first editions of Bacon’s work are displayed as well as Spedding’s collection of Bacon’s papers. James and his brothers were educated at Bury St Edmunds and became friends with Edward Fitzgerald (who gained fame with his translation of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam), Alfred Tennyson and Arthur Hallam. Following the death of Edward, younger brother of James, in 1832, Tennyson wrote a poem entitled ‘To JS’ – the first of his great elegies. The quiet composure of James is depicted in the opening lines of the tribute:

The wind, that beats the mountain, blows

More softly round the open wold,

And gently comes the world to those

That are cast in gentle mould.

James reviewed the 1842 Poems in the Edinburgh Review and being close friends with Tennyson, regularly discussed his draft poems. The numerous paintings, letters and drawings, as well as early photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron, tell the story of the friendship between James and the Tennysons, Fitzgerald, Hallam, Thackeray and other literary figures.

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The library contains letters and manuscripts relating the story of Thomas Carlyle and some of his struggles with some of his works. Thomas was a close friend of James and a regular visitor to Mirehouse. Describing his friend as “Dear hospitable Spedding”, Thomas called on James on his way to his Scottish home at Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire. While working on his Frederick the Great in 1851, Thomas remarked “I am deep in extremely dull German books about the history of Frederick.” Following the publishing of Volume One in 1857, Thomas wrote “If I live to get out of this Prussian Scrape (by far the worst I ever got into) it is among my dreams to come to Mirehouse.” Taken from The Literary Associations of the English Lakes: “There are those who would fain have that library filled again with the voices of old time. Tennysons’s deep-chested tones, FitzGerald’s laugh, Monckton-Milne’s wit, Carlyle’s strong Northern brogue, James Spedding’s dignified speech, and Tom Spedding’s humour.” Mirehouse is set in a wonderfully inspiring spot in Cumbria and exploring the stunning landscape surrounding the house, you truly get a sense of the poetic voices of the past. Canon Rawnsley had a favourite time to visit Mirehouse:

“Mirehouse in April is at its best. The great grove of Scots fir seems bluer in head and ruddier in stem against the evening light… Lambs cry from the home meadow, and the ravens, as they sail over to Skiddaw Forest, almost have a kind of geniality in their voice… The long lighted evenings with their saffron glory over Wythop prolong the spring-like day, and keep the thrushes singing until star-time.”

Mirehouse is Grade II* Listed.

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Knowle: Baddesley Clinton

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Badde’s Ley, Badde’s wood or clearing dates back to before the Conquest. The Saxon holder in 1066, Leuvinus, was replaced by the Norman knight Geoffrey de Wirce who was granted the manor by William the Conqueror. Walter de Bisege owned the manor 200 years later and his grand-daughter married Sir Thomas de Clinton – hence where Baddesley Clinton derives. With a number of defensive ditches being dug at the end of the 13th century when the Forest of Arden was being settled, it is likely that the moat at Baddesley dates from this time and that Sir Thomas may have been the first to construct a house on the site of the present building. Through the marriage of Nicholas Brome’s daughter Constance to Edward Ferrers, the Baddesley Clinton estate has passed through 13 generations of the Ferrers family until the mid 20th century. One of the most notable occupants at Baddesley is Henry Ferrers. Nicknamed the Antiquary, Henry was a historian who introduced much of the 16th century heraldic glass and the oak panelling in the Great Hall. The historian William Camden described Henry as “a man both for parentage and for knowledge of antiquary very commendable… who hath at all times courteously shewed me the right way when I was out, and from his candle, as it were, hath lighted mine.” Spending much of his life in historical research, he had planned to complete a history of the kings and queens of England.

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View through the Gatehouse to the 19th century Tudor style service wing

It is believed that there was a manor house on the site from around 1230, shortly after the estate came into the hands of the de Clinton family. Originally comprising a group of buildings surrounded by the moat, the medieval gatehouse would have served as the entrance to the original great hall and would have been a timber framed structure. With little remaining of the original house, the earliest visible elements date from the 15th and 16th centuries. A programme of rebuilding was underway in 1459 when John Brome acquired the manor which included a new L-shaped chamber block, a south-east tower and additional chambers. A new gatehouse range was added by Edward Ferrers during his rebuilding between 1526-1536. Henry Ferrers began a programme of improvements in 1574 which included alterations to the Gatehouse Range (new roof) and the rebuilding of the East Range, new staircases and first floor corridors for increased privacy. During the 17th century, the gatehouse had mullioned and transomed windows installed when a new Great Parlour was created by a rearrangement of the dividing walls over the gatehouse. Domestic gatehouses were not generally defensive in the military sense but gave sufficient protection against bands of marauders and provided a suitable place for the emblems of the owner, founder or patron.

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Often containing closets used as secret hiding spaces, houses of the late 16th century had vaulted cellars and tunnels connected with the sewage. A tunnel some 30 inches wide passes below the west wing at Baddesley which was constructed as a sewer to receive the drainage of the house (Wood, 1994). The level of the moat was raised at intervals to clean it with steps at one end allowing access for a servant to brush it out. During the times of religious persecution, the tunnel was transformed into a hide for Catholic priests by the 16th century architect Nicholas Owen, a specialist in building priest holes. Known as Little John, Owen trained as a carpenter and was a personal servant of Father John Gerard, the Jesuit Superior. With increased financial pressures, Henry Ferrers rented Baddesley out in 1590 to the daughters of Lord Vaux who were ardent Catholics. The Vaux sisters allowed a number of English Jesuit priests to use Baddesley as a base for missionary work and apparently did so without Henry’s knowledge. Following the Act of Uniformity in 1587, it was a treasonable offence to be or to harbour a Roman Catholic priest in your house so the Vaux sisters created a number of hiding places incase Baddesley was visited by the priest hunters. Despite the threat posed by the Act and risking their lives, the servants remained loyal.

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The Great Hall

A room of many uses, the Great Hall (above) was contrived by Henry Ferrers as a reception room and entertainments. Recording the installation of the great carved heraldic chimneypiece on 2nd March 1629, Henry remarks: “Work in the great chamber have finished and set up the chimneypiece… which I like well but the unicorn is not set up for the crest, and is as I think made too big and the horn too big, and too upright, and the eyes ill set and sidelong.” (Tinniswood, 1991) Formal dining took place in the first floor Great Parlour so although the Great Hall was recreated after the medieval fashion, it was quite different in function to other medieval manor houses. William Langland noted the tendency to dine apart in The Vision of Piers Plowman: 

Wretched is the hall… each day in the week

There the lord and lady liketh not to sit;

Now have the rich a rule to eat by themselves

In a privy parlour… for poor men’s sake,

Or in a chamber with a chimney, and leave the chief hall

That was made for meals, for men to eat in…

The great hall usually met several social needs, such as being a point of assembly for tenants, legal and administration purposes and was the main living room for the lord and their family. The central hearth, which necessitated a high roof, was gradually superseded by a wall fireplace, particularly from the 15th century onwards (Wood, 1994). It also became common during Elizabethan times for both the hall and the parlour to be “ceiled” with plastering becoming usual for ornament and effective protection against fire (Summerson, 1953). The fabulous fireplace at Baddesley is finely carved and derives from the printed designs in Sebastiano Serlio’s Five Books of Architecture and was moved to the Great Hall from the Great Parlour in 1572. Thomas Ferrers moved into Baddesey in 1747 and created a central door opposite the chimneypiece and added a plain plaster ceiling in this room. Concealing the 16th century timbers, the fine ceiling was not revealed until after a fire in 1940.

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The Library

The Library (above and below) was adapted from a first floor chamber and was created during the 17th century. In later centuries, this room was a bedroom and became known as the Ghost Bedroom. The fantastic carved overmantel is dated 1634 and was installed by Edward Ferrers. The beautiful oak lectern in the form of an eagle, made from a ship’s figurehead and dating to circa 1800, was introduced by Thomas Ferrers-Walker and his son in the 19th century. Thomas was responsible for recreating the Sacristy and removing an 18th century chimneystack. Thomas and his wife Undine also stripped back the many layers of paint in some of the rooms, repaired timberwork and revealed the ceiling in the Great Hall. Much of the furniture in the room is Georgian and many of the books are concerned with history and genealogy.

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The Library

Adjoining the Great Hall are the Drawing Room (below) and the Dining Room. Rebuilt in around 1790, the Drawing Room features glass, oak panelling and armorial chimneypiece that were re-used from other rooms in the house. One of the stained glass windows in the room is 16th century while the other was introduced in the 1890’s by Rebecca in memory of her two husbands. Rebecca Dulibella Orpen was born in 1830 and lived in County Cork with her aunt Lady Chatterton. The story goes that when the wealthy Edward Dering came to ask permission to marry Rebecca, the 53 year old Lady Chatterton misunderstood and announced to the world that she had accepted his proposal. Apparently too chivalrous to withdraw, Edward did indeed marry Lady Chatterton. Marmion Ferrers, the last Ferrers in the direct male line to live at Baddesley, married Rebecca in 1867. A talented and prolific painter, Rebecca filled the house with family portraits and many views of Baddesley Clinton. These four individuals – Marmion, Rebecca, Lady Chatterton and Edward Dering – became known as the Quartet. Living a “gentle Tennysonian existence” (Musson, 2015), the two inseparable couples restored and refurnished the house, recreated the Chapel and extended the servants wing. Lady Chatterton died in 1876 and following the death of Marmion in 1884, Edward finally married his true love Rebecca in 1885. After Edward’s death in 1892, Rebecca continued to live at Baddesley with her devoted servants until her death in 1923.

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The Drawing Room

After the death of Rebecca, Baddesley Clinton passed to her first husband’s great nephew. Much of the furniture was sold to Baron Ash at Packwood House (also in Warwickshire) as Ferrers relatives struggled to keep the house going. In 1940 the house was sold to Thomas Walker, a relation of the Ferrers family, and in 1980, his son, Thomas Ferrers-Walker, transferred it to the National Trust through National Land Fund procedures. The National Trust opened the house to visitors in 1982 and with the landscape that surrounds this idyllic ancient manor house being recognised for its environmental importance, there is a project supported by Natural England to restore the traditional character of the fields and park. Baddesley Clinton has a fantastic variety of architectural features that reflect both the changing fashions and the uses of this historic manor house.

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South side – the Chapel & Sacristy are located above the 18th century toilet block projection

The writer Fletcher Moss visited Baddesley Clinton following the death of Edward. Noting in Pilgrimages to Old Homes (1912), Fletcher describes the moment he was greeted at the door by a priest in Benedictine dress: “In the quaint epauletted livery of black is a butler whose mien is that of a family servant – not one who is bought with mere wages, but a survival from the days when servants were serfs or chattels, bred and reared on, and part of, the estate.” Speaking of Rebecca, he goes on: “In thorough harmony with the place is the Lady of the Manor, a handsome courteous elderly lady whose time is spent in works of charity, and who comes to say a few words of welcome not only for this day but also for another.”

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Coach House completed in 1714

An illustrated article on Baddesley Clinton appeared in the first issue of Country Life in January 1897. Described as “a truly quaint and beautiful domestic survival of the English country life of the olden time” (Tinniswood, 1991), John Leyland gives the following description of Warwickshire country houses: “mailed knights have dwelt within their walls, fugitives in troublous times have fled to their secret chambers, cavaliers have knocked at their oaken doors.” On arriving at Baddesley, Leyland notes: “About seven miles from Warwick… all amid the silent woods, its grey walls and timber gables reflected in a lake-like moat, stands the old Hall of Baddesley Clinton. Its aspect carries you back hundreds of years. You will readily, if so disposed, conjure up an old-world history when you look at it, and if you have any antiquarian interest – and who has not at least a tinge of it? – you can easily forget for the time that you are living in the Nineteenth century.”

Baddesley Clinton is Grade I Listed.

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East Range containing the Great Hall

Hanbury Hall

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Hanbury Hall stands in stunning parkland in the district of Wychavon in Worcestershire. Hanbury was acquired by the Vernon family, rich lawyers, in 1631 and was expensively rebuilt by Thomas Vernon in the 1690’s. A talented lawyer at the Courts of Chancery, Thomas Vernon was supplied with designs for the hall by three men – William Rudhall, James Withenbury and John Chatterton. Closest to what was built is the designs of William Rudhall who came from Henley In Arden. The building is constructed of red brick in Flemish bond with ashlar dressings and features prominent wings which flank a recessed central entrance beneath a deep pediment. The two storey hall also features a central octagonal cupola which is said to “rise like a Dutch gallant with a weak chin” (Jenkins, 2003). Little changed from the original plans from the end of the 17th century until it was acquired by the National Trust in 1953. Showing considerable signs of wear and tear, Hanbury has, thankfully, continually been conserved since it came into the care of the Trust.

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Thomas Vernon commissioned the artist Sir James Thornhill to create the wall and ceiling paintings that lavishly adorn the interior. Thornhill was the only British large scale painter of the time and his work on the cupola of St Paul’s Cathedral is his most famous. Entering the main hall (above), you are immediately greeted with an assembly of classical deities. Representing an open-air gallery, the fabulous wall paintings are set within architectural surrounds and depict the story of the Greek hero Achilles. At the time of building Hanbury, a painted staircase was a statement of wealth and with an increased interest in classical civilisations, the story of Achilles and the Trojan War was a fitting mythological theme to be depicted. The Great Staircase is cantilevered and features turned and fluted balusters. The panelling on the walls is finely carved and grained to represent walnut although it is actually made of pine. 

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Although adapted in the 18th century, the downstairs rooms are of a conventional 17th century house. The upstairs rooms are furnished with four-poster beds, porcelain and paintings. Flanked by wild Baroque doorcases, the Gothick Corridors are so named after the wallpaper that decorates the walls. Inspired by wild nature and emphasising strong colours, the Gothick style relates to the art forms prevalent in Northern Europe from the 12th to the 15th centuries.

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Hanbury was a parish belonging to the church of Worcester at the time of the Domesday survey in 1088. From the Norman Conquest onwards, Hanbury was within the boundaries of the Royal Forest of Feckenham and with harsh forest laws, only chosen officials could hunt in such designated areas. After Feckenham lost its royal status in 1629, local families, including the Vernons, bought up land to increase their estates.

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The Formal Garden at Hanbury is part of the grand plans from George London which were laid out for Thomas Vernon in circa 1700. Consisting of intricate and symmetrical parterres and different areas divided by clipped hedges or walls, work to restore the Formal Garden, made up of six parts, began in the early 1990’s. During the late 18th century, London’s work at Hanbury was replaced with the more informal landscaping style of Lancelot Capability Brown. The old stables and farm buildings were demolished at the same time with the kitchen garden removed to a new walled enclosure away from the house.

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In 1865 Thomas Bowater Vernon commissioned R.W.Billings to design a new forecourt with elaborate brick gate piers, archways and railings with gazebos at the corners. Although they are Victorian interpretations, they echo the original pavilions seen in early 18th century drawings. With the aid of generous bequests and a European Union grant, the Formal Garden and the avenues leading into the park have been returned to their original splendour.

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“A fayre Parcke, which though in thys paryshe is styled Feckenham Parcke, sooting in name with the Kynges vast forest, reaching in former ages far and wyde. A large walke for savage beastes, but nowe more commoudyously changed to the civill habitations of many gentell-men, the freehoulds of wealthy yeoman and dwellings of industrious husbandmen.” Thomas Habington (1560-1647)

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Hanbury Hall is Grade I Listed.

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Sizergh Castle: Banqueting Hall

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On the second floor of the tower at Sizergh Castle is the Banqueting Hall. In medieval times, this was the solar chamber and is entered from a spiral staircase. The staircase provided the only access until alterations in the 19th century when a doorway was cut through from the Top Passage. The room is lit by a deep set 14th century three light window which overlooks the courtyard.

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The Hall features a 16th century fireplace and adze-hewn oak floorboards. The removal of the floor above was part of the 19th century alterations which were inspired by the fashion for romantic medievalism, creating a highly theatrical interior. During the late 19th century and early 20th century, the ashlar stonework walls were painted with trompe-l’oeil and hung with armour and trophies of weapons in a true baronial style.

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In 1948 Henry Hornyold-Strickland made a gallery (below) around all four sides of the upper storey using timber salvaged from a 16th century barn which had collapsed in 1945.

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Against the early 17th century long-table are two sets of Elizabethan forms, or benches, the sides of which are carved to imitate loosely the hanging edge of a hide covering. One set (below) has the initials of Walter Strickland and the date 1562 while the other may be slightly later and made to match. Chairs with arms were comparatively rare during the mid 16th century and an inventory dated 1569 records only nine in the whole house. Four panel-back armchairs (as seen next to the fireplace in top photos) with flat topped arms are dated 1570 and 1571 and have lozenge panels which match those in the Old Dining Room.

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The late 17th century Brussels tapestry (top) portrays the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius reproving his wife Faustina for her profligate living. This wonderful room is furnished with beautiful Elizabethan and Georgian pieces that highlight superb craftsmanship.

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Hethersgill: Kirklinton Hall

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Kirklinton lies on what has always been the frontier zone between England and Scotland. Although it is not known what building, if any, stood on the present site in 1660, it is reputed that Edmund Appleby built Kirklinton Hall from the stone of the ruined Levington Castle as early as 1661. Edmund’s son Joseph married Dorothy Dacre of Lanercost and following the death of her brothers, she became a considerable heiress and the couple quartered their arms. Kirklinton Hall remained in the hands of the Dacre-Applebys until the mid 19th century when the Reverend Joseph Dacre sold the manor to the trustees of George Graham. He subsequently took the name of Graham Kirklinton, which became Kirklinton-Saul and by the 20th century, simply Kirklinton. The Hall was let out for much of the interwar period and the estate was sold in 1937. First requisitioned by the RAF for an officer’s mess, towards the end of the war it housed evacuees from Rossall School at Fleetwood. Following the war it was converted into flats which were occupied by servicemen working at Longtown MOD.

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A Mr Caine ran Kirklinton through the 1960’s as The Borders Country Club which was a casino and night club. Attracting gamblers both locally and further afield, the Hall had a glass-floored ballroom, exotic dancers, a first floor casino and bedrooms above. Mr Caine had gangster connections and there were many sightings of the Kray twins. Numerous famous bands and singers of the period performed at Kirklinton Hall but following a change in licensing laws, the casino ceased to be able to operate. Mr Caine abandoned the Hall which subsequently fell into a state of disrepair. An application to demolish the Hall was refused in the early 1970’s despite becoming a roofless ruin.

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Stable Block

Constructed of calciferous sandstone coursed rubble with dressed stone and ashlar, the 17th century house is a single pile three-storey c-shaped building. Featuring a five bay Classically dressed entrance facade, the windows have moulded architraves and full, flat entablatures. Red and buff sandstone appears to have been used decoratively and all the windows throughout the Hall were originally mullioned and transomed in stone. Kirklinton is stylistically attributed to Edward Addison, a pupil of the English architect William Talman. Talman was in the metropolitan circle of Wren and the Board of Works and a mannerism Addison learned from him appears in the frieze of the entablature – rather than being pulvinated or cyma recta, it is cyma reversa. The Hall has a decisive three storey arrangement with the piano nobile emphasised by rendering both ground and second floor windows as square with first floor windows approximately a double square.

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Up for auction in 2012, the opportunity presented itself to Christopher Boyle QC to step in and rescue Kirklinton from development schemes. In 2013, Mr and Mrs Boyle obtained planning permission and listed building consent to restore Edward Addison’s 17th century house. This work has started with the building cleared of rubble and forty year old trees, walls stabilised, outbuildings re-roofed and the restoration of the gardens and grounds.

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At some point prior to 1865, the Hall was doubled in length by the addition to the west of a two storey classical block with twinned curved bays under a ballustraded parapet. The west tower was completely rebuilt to house a grand staircase in what had become the central portion of the house. The gables of the rebuilt tower and the surviving east tower were elaborated with bold Jacobethan details. Above the door and first floor window of the staircase tower are upturned clam or scallop shells (below) which given the similarity, is considered a courteous nod to the Arms of the Dacres.

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The main stable block incorporates a much earlier altered stable and added a Jacobethan block to match the new gables on the Hall. A low single storey wing extends two sides round a cobbled yard and features a two bay carriage house and a boiler house.

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From a state of abject dereliction, the gardens and grounds at Kirklinton are being restored to Organic production. As much a ruin as the Hall, the formal terraces lay buried and invisible beneath grass, brambles and self-sown sycamores. The lawns and Kitchen Garden were high with hogweed and coarse grasses and the 120 yard long 18th century hot wall was decayed. Thankfully, this situation has been transformed. Drawing on contemporary writers such as Francis Bacon, John Evelyn and John Parkinson, the driving philosophy of the restoration seeks to explore and re-capture the 17th century spirit of the garden.

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The principle ‘Dulce et Utile’ (beauty and usefulness) is ingrained in the writing of the time and leads to the creation of a beautiful, yet productive, garden. The gardens at Kirklinton broadly follow their historical form and includes a 17th century style formal terrace which has been restored with English Roses.

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The Faerie Glen is a beautiful woodland walk along the cliff above Longcleughside Beck crossing three footbridges. Leading ultimately to the River Lyne and the Captain’s Seat, this notable local beauty spot is the site of an ancient rock-carved face (below). The legend tells that the carved face is all that remains of Maelgwyn the Fair, a faerie princess that pined away for love of the first de Boyville at Kirklinton.

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I completely disagree with Pevsner’s description of “an all rather bleak indifferent Georgian five bay centre.” The magic of Kirklinton invites you to appreciate this architectural delight where there is intrigue, mystique and beauty. Christopher and Ilona Boyle welcome you to “a place not to be rushed; a place whose special atmosphere needs to be savoured and soak up a little faerie dust.” As Alfred Tennyson wrote in 1849: ” An English home – gray twilight. On dewy pastures, dewy trees. Softer than sleep – all things in order stored, A haunt of ancient peace.” For those who enjoy all things classical, Kirklinton Opera hosts spectacular fully staged classical performances in the covered hall that are not to be missed.

Kirklinton Hall is Grade II Listed.

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Fordhouses: Moseley Old Hall

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Adjacent to the border of Staffordshire, in the suburb of Fordhouses on the outskirts of Wolverhampton, is the charming half-timbered Moseley Old Hall. Thought likely to date to 1600, the Hall was built by Henry Pitt of Bushbury, a merchant of the staple who had purchased the estate in 1583 from a Codsall family. On his death in 1602, it was inherited by his daughter Alice who subsequently married Thomas Whitgreave of Bridgeford, Staffordshire. Moseley Old Hall and estate then passed by direct descent in the Whitgreave line until its sale in 1925. In the late 19th century, the Hall’s dilapidated state seems to have been the cause of the change of name to Moseley Old Hall – in 1600 it was referred to as Mr Pitt’s new Hall at Moseley.

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Until 1870 there appears to have been little structural alteration to the building. The outer walls were rebuilt at this time and the Elizabethan windows were replaced by casements. Much of the original panelling and timber framing within the house still remains and is clearly visible throughout. Despite falling into disrepair and seriously affected by mining subsidence, the Hall remained in use as a farmhouse until the estate was sold in 1925. In 1940 it was acquired by Will Wiggin of Bloxwich but his efforts to repair the building were interrupted by wartime restrictions and were not completed at the time of his death. The Wiggin family transferred the Hall and one acre of land to the National Trust in 1962 and they opened the building to the public in 1963.

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After his defeat at the Battle of Worcester in 1651, Charles II was on the run for 41 days with a price of £1000 on his head. On the morning of 8th September of the same year, the King arrived at the back door of Moseley Old Hall disguised in rough woodman’s clothes. Thomas Whitgreave and his priest, Father Huddleston, greeted the King and welcomed him inside. Whitgreave was a Catholic and his mother Alice, who was also in the house, had suffered heavy fines for their faith from the Parliamentary authorities. The King was found a safe hiding place in one of Moseley’s priest holes. By the time he left Moseley two days later, the King had devised a practical plan of escape to France. Those who had helped the King lived in fear of execution for the next eight and a half years until Charles was restored to the throne in 1660. The King dictated his own account of the dramatic six weeks of 1651 to Samuel Pepys in 1680. Thomas Whitgreave became known in the family as ‘the Preserver’ and he described the events at Moseley in a manuscript. The original manuscript still belongs to his descendants but has been reproduced, along with many other versions of the story, in the exhibition about Charles Ii in the Dressing Room.

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The Ante Room walls display five 17th century prints of the Stations of the Cross by Nicholas de Bruyn. Also known as Way of Sorrows or Via Crucis, the Stations of the Cross are a series of images that commemorate Jesus on the day of his crucifixion. The room has exposed timbers, uncovered wooden floor and fireplace.

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The corridor on the first floor (above) was constructed in the 19th century to give privacy to the bedroom from which it was divided. The walls display collections of contemporary engravings which depict people and events connected with the King’s flight. Also on display are various Acts and Ordnances issued by the Commonwealth of England, including a document that dates to September 1651 offering a reward of £1000 for the capture of ‘Charls Stuart Traytor’.

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The Bedroom on the second floor has a large oak bedstead which has rope springing to support a straw palliasse or mattress. Similar bedrooms of the period would only contain a bed and possibly a chest to hold clothing.

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The Chapel (above), or Oratory, was originally open to the rafters. The barrel-vaulted ceiling was added following the Relieving Act of 1791 which allowed Catholics greater freedom of worship. The blue and gold star decoration above the altar was executed following the issue of a licence for the Chapel on 14th July 1791. The room was regularly used for services until the 20th century. The Whitgreave crucifix was made in Spain and the room features two carved Yorkshire/Derbyshire chairs.

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The Attic contains much of the original timber framing and the facing wall has an infilling of wattle and daub. The garret is the room in which Huddleston’s three pupils kept watch during Charles visit to Moseley. The adjoining section of the attic is a small hiding place, next to a chute to the Brewhouse on the ground floor. The brewing ingredients were stored here, under the roof, to keep them dry until required for use.

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One of the principle features of the garden at Moseley Old Hall is the Knot Garden. A knot, as it was developed in Tudor times, was a small, usually rectangular, bed upon which was outlined a pattern. The Moseley Knot is worked in the living green of dwarf plants with spaces filled with coloured gravels. The garden follows one of five designs laid out by the Rev. Walter Stonehouse, Rector of Darfield in Yorkshire in 1640.

Moseley Old Hall is Grade II* Listed.

Kirkby Stephen: Stobars Hall

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Located in a commanding position over-looking Kirkby Stephen stands the castellated mansion Stobars Hall. With extensive views of the surrounding landscape, this delightful setting was chosen by James Brougham for his mansion in 1829. The mansion was built and designed by Mr William Close of Kirkby Stephen who is described as a joiner, cabinet maker and architect (History, Topography and Directory of Westmorland and Lonsdale North of the Sands in Lancashire, Edition: 1849).

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The building features a late Georgian front with a Tuscan porch (above) and tripartite ground floor windows. The building is constructed of coursed rubble with incised jointing, moulded quoins and features an embattled parapet.

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North Westmorland had few real gentry and some who were described as ‘gentlemen’ were also successful farmers or businessmen. The 1829 Directory describes thirty men in the area who were described as gentlemen or ‘Esq.’ with no occupation stated. James Brougham was one of these men.

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Stobars Hall was later occupied by Captain Martin Irving JP, William Metcalfe in 1851 and by 1871, Matthew Thompson JP who was a local landowner and Deputy Lieutenant of the county.

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The mainly two storey building is of a L shaped plan with embattled towers, chimneys concealed in merlons and 16 pane sash windows to each floor. Many original features still remain throughout the building including doors, cornices and ornately decorated fireplaces (above and below).

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Finely decorated original cornice

A poem taken from The Book of the Chronicles; Or, Winter Evening Tales of Westmorland, Volume 1 adequately portrays the setting:

“Hail Stobars, hail! from thy high hill, We gaze and look, and wonder still: What a landscape greets our eyes, Spread beneath the lofty skies; Loveliest place of all the North, Art did much to bring thee forth; Brougham! thy honour’d Name shall be, Transmitted to posterity; In future ages will be sung- ‘The patron of the Poet Young.”

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Hand painted wildlife scenes adorn interior doors

The reception rooms north of the entrance hall feature re-used 17th & 18th century panelling and some of the hand carved pieces of furniture are incredibly rich in detail. The wonderful cabinet below is inscribed with the initials WME and is dated 1713. The panels are exquisitely embellished with geometrical patterns and flowers.

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The advantageous position of Stobars Hall includes views of Wild Boar Fell, Wharton Hall & Park and the Forest of Mallerstang.

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Stobars Hall is Grade II Listed.

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