Cartmel Priory: Lord Frederick Cavendish


In the northwest corner of the nave in Cartmel Priory is the above Cavendish memorial. The impressive alabaster tomb chest bears a marble effigy of Lord Frederick Cavendish, son of the 7th Duke of Devonshire, who was Chief Secretary to Ireland in Gladstone’s government. Lord Cavendish was assassinated in Phoenix Park in Dublin in 1882 along with Thomas H Burke, permanent undersecretary for Ireland. Born in 1836, Lord Cavendish was a British politician who entered parliament in 1865. He became financial secretary to the Treasury from 1880 and in 1882, he became Chief Secretary for Ireland. As part of a goodwill emissary from England at the height of the Irish Crisis, Lord Cavendish was murdered by a Fenian splinter group, known as the Invincibles, the day after his arrival in Dublin.


The fine tomb chest is the work of the 19th century English sculptor and poet Thomas Woolner. Each of the base panels are flanked by richly ornamented engaged pilasters. The chest features the Cavendish crest (below) and the inscription reads “Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord, or who shall rise up in his holy place? Even he that hath clean hands and a pure heart.”


Bowes Museum: The Winged Victory of Samothrace


The above marble sculpture dates to circa 1863 and is a copy of The Winged Victory of Samothrace. Also known as the Nike of Samothrace, it was discovered in 1863 on the Greek island of Samothrace by the French consul and amateur archaeologist Charles Champoiseau. The original statue is thought to have been created between 100 and 300 BC to honour Nike, the goddess of victory and messenger of Zeus and Athena. Considered to be one of the finest examples of Hellenistic period sculpture, the goddess is depicted descending from the skies with extended wings. A plaster replica now stands in the museum at the original location of the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on Samothrace.

Bowes Museum: Sleeping Child


Dating to circa 1855, the above French sculpture depicts a sleeping child on an oval draped marble base. The white marble child lies partially on his right side with his head and chest raised by the base. Similarly, the white marble child below also dates to circa 1855. The sleeping child lies on a draped bed with the head resting on a tasselled pillow. The right hand rests on the chest with the thumb holding a cord from which a crucifix is suspended.


Bowes Museum: Pauline Bonaparte


The above marble bust dates to circa 1810 and depicts Pauline Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon. Attributed to P.Jurany, Pauline is depicted with her hair braided in the classical style that was typical of the early nineteenth century. The Regency style in England and the First Empire style in France exchanged many design ideas based around classical and ancient Egyptian decoration.

Bowes Museum: Louis Fontanes


The above marble bust dates to 1798 and is the work of the 18th century French sculptor Pierre Julien. Louis, Marquis de Fontanes, was appointed grand master of the university of Paris by Napoleon. In 1795, he was appointed professor of literature at École Centrale des Quatre-Nations and was one of the first members of Institut National.

Carlisle Cathedral: Francis Close


Located in the north nave aisle in Carlisle Cathedral is a monument to Francis Close. Born in 1797 in Corston Somerset, Francis was the youngest son of a noted agriculturalist – Henry Jackson Close. Francis graduated from St John’s College Cambridge in 1820 and became the first licensed curate of Holy Trinity Church in Cheltenham in 1824. He remained Perpetual Curate of Cheltenham until 1856 and during his ministry in the Gloucestershire parish, Francis erected a cemetery chapel and four district churches. Following a near fatal accident in Geneva in 1855, Francis reduced his workload, sermons and attended few public meetings. In December 1856, Francis became Dean of Carlisle Cathedral – a post which he held until 1881.


The marble effigy depicts the Dean clutching a bible over his chest with his head supported by pillows. The monument sits within a carved Gothic canopy and is the work of the 19th century English sculptor Henry Hugh Armstead.

Kendal: Bust of Aulus Vitellius


Aulus Vitellius was a Roman Emperor who reigned for eight months in 69AD. Vitellius is described by the writer Seutonius as “unusually tall with an alcoholic flush. A huge paunch and a somewhat crippled thigh from being run into by a four-horse chariot.” The bust of Vitellius is on display in Abbot Hall Art Gallery and is believed to be the work of the Victorian architectural sculptor Thomas Duckett. The principle sculptor at local building firm Websters of Kendal, Duckett created a number of works from his studio in Preston. The bust is sculpted from marble and granite depicting the Emperor wearing a military robe and dates to c1850.


London: Quadriga of the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos


Built in the 4th century BC, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Bodrum, Turkey) was a tomb built for king Maussollos of Karia. Listed as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the building was adorned with marble sculptures. Featuring a stepped pyramid roof, a quadriga (four-horse chariot group) was positioned on the top which were approximately five metres in height.


The two largest surviving fragments of the quadriga are on display in the British Museum in London and detail the head of a horse with its original bronze bridle. The fragments were excavated by the 19th century British archaeologist Sir Charles Thomas Newton.

Lichfield: Sleeping Children Monument


The Sleeping Children is a sculpted monument in memory of two children. The monument is dedicated to the children of the Reverend William Robinson and his wife Ellen-Jane – Ellen-Jane and Marianne. The marble monument was placed in Lichfield Cathedral in 1817 and is the work of the 19th century English sculptor Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey.

Florence: Michelangelo’s David


Outside the entrance to Palazzo Vecchio stands the marble statue of David. To celebrate the Florentine Republic, Michelangelo was commissioned in 1501 to create a statue, now famously known as David. The biblical hero of David was to become the symbol of freedom for Florentine institutions. The statue was moved to the Academia Gallery in 1873.


The statue which now stands outside the Palazzo Vecchio is a marble copy which was erected in 1910.